The female body undergoes many physiological, anatomical and hormonal changes during pregnancy. This makes the female more vulnerable to various kinds of infectious diseases and the immune system also runs low till parturition to avoid rejection of the baby making the female even more susceptible.
Bacterial contamination can take place during implantation of the embryo and the infection can persist till parturition. This can be harmful for both the mother and the baby both unborn and newborn. These diseases do not always come along with adequate symptoms in many women so generating proper awareness about such bacterial infections is highly necessary.
Common Bacterial Infection During Pregnancy And Treatments
Bacterial vaginosis or BV is a very common disease amongst pregnant woman and the causative agent is the bacterial flora of the vagina. The rate of occurrence of this infection is so high that every 1 out of 5 pregnant woman suffers from it at some point of their childbearing period.
BV is curable by proper drug administration especially antibiotics which are safe for childbearing women. In this case the father doesn’t need to undergo any treatment or medication. The medicines should be taken properly and carefully for the complete time period for which they have been prescribed. It is not wise to stop taking them as soon as the symptoms disappear. Completing the course of antibiotics reduces the bacterial population of the vaginal completely though in some most unfortunate cases the disease does reappear.
This disease is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus sp. and two variations of this disease namely group A and group B is commonly seen. The group A streptococcal infection is caused by the species S. pyogenes. The occurrence of this type of infection has become greatly reduced in recent times. The bacterium S. pyogenes produces symptoms same as toxic shock condition and scarlet fever. The symptoms are rare and penicillin is the only treatment.
The causative agent of group B or most commonly occurring Streptococcal infection is S. agalactiae. Occurrence of this infection creates a life threatening condition for the newborn babies most of the time and so is a very dangerous pathogenic condition.
Usually penicillin is the treatment but ladies allergic to this antibiotic and at low anaphylaxis danger are commonly treated with initial dose of 2 g of Cefazolin via intravenous injections followed by 1g of the same medicine per 8 hour till parturition.
Penicillin allergic childbearing woman who are at higher danger of anaphylaxis are treated with 900mg intravenous loading of Clindamycin per 8 hour or 500 mg intravenous loading of erythromycin per 6 hours till parturition.
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary Tract Infection or UTI is a common pathogenic manifestation in pregnant women. The urinary tract undergoes various changes during pregnancy especially the urethra becomes shorter hence the bacteria gets easy pass into the body causing the infection.
Sometimes the increasing uterus blocks normal urine passage causing urine accumulation in the bladder for prolonged time period resulting in pathogenic situations.
Antibiotics safe for pregnancy like amoxicillin, Cephalexin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, Sulfonamides, nitrofurantoins etc. are usually prescribed for this disease. But Sulfonamides can cause Kernicterus and hyperbilirubinemia in newly born babies so its administration for last few weeks of pregnancy should be avoided.