Molar pregnancy is when there is pregnancy kind of tissue growth in the uterus. It is also known is non-viable pregnancy. Complication during fertilisation, for e.g. genetic error can lead to a molar pregnancy. In a molar pregnancy the foetus and placenta do not grow at all or grow improperly. It can be a complete or partial molar Pregnancy.
Symptoms Of Molar Pregnancy
The symptoms that a woman shows in case of Molar pregnancy are the same as in a normal viable pregnancy. Even the home pregnancy kit that uses urine would show a positive result. Molar pregnancy can be detected as early as 8 weeks. The main causes of a molar pregnancy are conception after the age of 35, history of Molar pregnancy and deficiency of Vitamin A. The diagnosis can be through an ultrasound scan, blood test, pelvic exam or all the three together.
Diagnosis Of Molar Pregnancy
Ultrasound Scan (USG)
Ultrasound scan by 8th or 9th week can detect a molar pregnancy since by this time foetus develops a heart beat whereas in a molar pregnancy either there is no development or even if there is a development, a heartbeat does not develop. This scan uses high frequency sound waves in to the uterus to create a visual. A complete molar pregnancy is very easily detected in the scan as the scan will not show foetus but a sac like structure not developing at all.
This diagnosis really is after a miscarriage or termination of molar pregnancy takes place. The pathologist observes and examines tissues from placenta and foetus to establish molar pregnancy. This test is specially recommended where there is partial molar pregnancy. This would mean that part of placenta is normal whereas some part has abnormal growth. The foetus might also have a limited development. However, it is not a viable pregnancy and body may naturally shed it.
During pregnancy, a woman’s body produces hormone called Human chorionic gonadotrophin or HCG. However, in case of molar pregnancy the level of this hormone is much higher as compared to the normal pregnancy. A blood test is specially done to check the HCG level in the body where molar pregnancy is suspected. Blood test is also very important after the molar pregnancy has been terminated as it indicates if all the tissues of the pregnancy have been cleaned out of the body.
Many women having molar pregnancy suffer from pelvic pain. Also, the size of the uterus may be bigger or smaller for that stage of pregnancy. As many as 30% women have bigger than usual uterine size in case of molar pregnancy. There could be presence of persistent bleeding and loss of amniotic fluid from the uterus. In some cases anxiety and respiratory distress may indicate molar pregnancy. Molar pregnancy ones detected is terminated under medical supervision. The remnant of foetus and placenta is removed completely. HCG tests are done regularly for some period after the termination to ensure complete removal of these tissues since they can multiply quickly and spread to other organs. These tissues can also spread through bloodstream.