Health care in pre menstrual and post menstrual phase is extremely important in the life of women.
Many changes start taking place in the female body from the age of nine years. This stage is known as pre-menstrual or pre-puberty stage. In it, breasts start developing and within two to three years, the biological stage of puberty begins. In this stage or phase, hair starts growing around private parts, in the armpits and on the arms and growth of breasts becomes apparent. For providing support to breasts, a girl must wear sports bra from the age of eleven to twelve years.
It is the responsibility of a mother to make her daughter aware about the possible biological changes in the pre-puberty stage itself. Information should be given about how development will take place in breasts along with hormonal changes.
In that particular age, it is important to continue the playful activities of a girl and avoid giving her too much fast food as it can adversely affect the development in the body.
In contemporary society, girls are growing faster therefore it is important to give them information about menstrual cycle in the pre-puberty stage itself. Generally, menstrual cycle begins in the age group of ten to fourteen years. Initially, this cycle is not regular and takes place in an interval of two to three months and sometimes continues for many days.
Generally, in the initial two years of menstrual periods, pain is not experienced and if it happens than a girl must be taken to a gynaecologist because there can be a problem in uterus. When periods become regular, pain in stomach and back is normal in first two days. If girl is not able to tolerate pain, then painkiller medicine can be given.
Significance Of Good Hygiene & Proper Diet
Proper hygiene must be maintained during menstrual periods. Regular bathing and thorough cleaning of private parts is very important. Girls must be careful not to apply any sought of powder on private parts. Change sanitary pads if they turn completely wet and dispose them properly.
Give adequate amount of iron and protein so that full development of girl’s body can take place, thereby preventing the problem of anemia. If necessary, iron tablets can also be given. If a girl suffers from anemia in this phase then she might suffer from complications at the time of pregnancy. At the age of eleven or twelve, haemoglobin level must be at least 12 g/dL
Precautions To Be Taken During Menstrual Cycle
During course of menstrual cycle, mood swing can also occur because of changes in hormonal activity inside the body. For this duration, girls must not indulge in dancing, weightlifting or any type of heavy exercises, but if weakness is not felt by the girl then she can do cycling and jogging . It is advisable to do yoga, meditation and walking.
If physical growth of girl is right then wait till the age of sixteen years for menstrual cycle to begin. But if period do not start in that age and weight has reduced or if height has stopped increasing then gynaecologist must be consulted immediately. Normally, gynaecologist will recommend hormones test, thyroid test, chromosome test and ultrasound. In many cases, girl suffers from pain but bleeding does not take place. This condition is known as hematocolpos. In this condition, imperforate hymen of a girl is not broken so that is why blood remains inside. It can be corrected after a small operation.
Health Care In Post Menstrual Phase
From the age of forty years, many changes starts taking place and this development is not an immediate process but it takes several years to become fully operational. This stage is called pre-menopause. During this stage, eggs are produced in less quantity, menstrual periods become irregular and there’s always a feeling of irritability.
There is also dryness in private parts, hair starts falling, breasts starts loosing their elasticity, there is less inclination towards sexual intercourse, and increased obesity are some of the changes before actual menopause starts. Gradually, the menstrual cycle of women stops completely at age of fifty years. Menopause occurs when menstrual periods does not start for one year.
If after menopause, blood stains are noticed then consult doctor immediately because bleeding at this stage can be an indication of cancer. At this point of time, women must consume more of soybeans, green vegetables and milk.
Possible Complications In Pre Menstrual & Post Menstrual Stages
After menopause, the problem of knee pain or stiffness is generally observed amongst women because of calcium deficiency or loss of strength in bones due to lack of exercise. It increases the chances of fracture.
During this phase, ample quantity of vitamin C and D, beta carotene, fat free milk, cheese, broccoli, beans, carrot, egg, walnut, apple, cherry, green tea, spinach and papaya must be included. If necessary then hormone replacement therapy can be done. Most importantly, increase physical activity and reduce excessive weight in menopause.
Development of cyst in ovary or fibroid in uterus is a common problem. By and large, cyst is a kind of fluid related tumour and fibroid is solid tumour. Most of the cysts can be fully treated by medicines.
It is a normal thing to experience little bit of discharge from private parts of women. Girls in the age group of eight to ten years might get discharge because of worm infestation in stomach. Getting discharge prior to menstrual period is absolutely normal but if there is burning sensation, itching, matter is thick, smelly or has blood stains then there can be a problem of leucorrhoea.
Polycystic ovary disease can develop between the ages of twelve to forty five years. Basic reason behind it is the change in hormones, lifestyle and sometimes genetic causes. In it, there’s a formation of small cysts around ovary.
Women must get their blood sugar, blood pressure, urine, cholesterol, Pap smear and mammography tests done annually. Normally, these tests must be done after thirty years of age but after forty years, these diagnostic tests must be done on a regular basis.