Around ten percent of the population of world lives with disabilities, with children being the major part of it. Mortality rates of children with disabilities in a few countries, like India is as high as 80%. Children with disabilities are at higher risk of getting subjected to threat or violence and 90% of children with disabilities are deprived of education. Children with disabilities or special needs just need additional assistance for routine tasks and love and affection.
Caregivers or parents can be an emotional and moral support for them, in addition to assisting for their repressed capabilities. Early diagnosis and intervention can be vital in overcoming the disability of the child. In most of the cases, disability can just be prevented by following good care of expectant mothers with proper pre and post natal care, including the right nutrition during pregnancy and breastfeeding phase.
Kinds Of Disabilities In Children
Physical disabilities can occur in a wide range of severe forms in children affecting the ability to perform simple tasks due to hindered mobility, hearing impairment, visual difficulties and loss of fine motor skills that make dressing up or feeding themselves an enormous task. In case of malformed limbs, surgery is the way to correct the specific disability, offering a chance to the child for more independent and easier life. Physical abilities puts them in sea of coordination troubles, paralysis due to inadequate muscle strength and combination of both further cause restricted activities that hinders their social and interpersonal interactions like playing, indulging in sports and taking part in extracurricular activities like peers of their age.
Intellectual disabilities or commonly referred as mental disabilities pertains to limitations in the mental functioning of the child. In recent past, such children have been called as mental retarded children. Actually, children with mental disabilities are not completely retarded, but only have some mental impairment like one has vision impairment that can be rectified with eye glasses.
These disabilities include Alzheimer’s disease, Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Dyscalculia, Cerebral palsy, ADHD and Autism. Parents need to give an extra time with more love and care to such children as this has proven to improve the condition remarkably.
Children with difficulties in performing skilled activities and learning are suffering from learning disabilities. These can be assessed during communication, simple math computation problems and reading. But, this is not necessary that the child is somewhat less intelligent than other children without any learning disability.
The difference is only in different working of brain for information process. At times, such children have proven to possess unusual brain talents. Parents should help to flourish the actual talent and capabilities of children rather than trying to improve those talents that they lack from birth. While doing these, children will be able to find better coping mechanisms to counter their learning disabilities too.
Children having sensory input problems like high sensitivities to touch, light and sounds are known to have neurological disabilities. The most widespread of neurological disorders belong to autism spectrum, where the child has trouble communicating, interacting and understanding others. But, this form of disabilities can be improved with intensive therapy that helps the child to learn to cope with difficult circumstances and interact properly with others.