So, as the name clearly indicates, arthritis is the disorder of joints which causes inflammation. It is a really painful condition as inflamed joints tend to swell and become red. Mobility is also decreased as a result of joint stiffening and pain.
Various Kinds Of Arthritis
Arthritis is becoming common and several thousands of people all around the globe every year develop this condition. That is why, arthritis is becoming a huge topic of interest and many treatments are being worked upon for its cure.
Several drugs are being formulated so as to ride away the condition totally with least side effects and discomfort. However, no such treatment has been invented yet which could clear this disorder away from the body completely. Still, many methods are available to decrease the joint inflammation and to improve the quality of life.
There are many kinds of arthritis, at least more than 100. Some of the common ones are mentioned as under.
This is one of the two most common types of arthritis, other being rheumatoid arthritis. This condition is defined as ‘degenerative joint disease’ and also as ‘wear and tear of the joints’. It generally occurs due to aging and also, due to medical conditions such as obesity. Osteoarthritis may also develop due to over use of joints or due to injury. Those joints which bear weight such as the knee joint and the hip joint are likely to be more prone to degeneration.
In osteoarthritis, the cartilage of affected joint begins to wear away and thus impairs most of the abilities of the joint. With the loss of cartilage, the cushioning effect goes away. A grating sound might be heard when moving the joint. This sound comes from the roughened cartilages or the exposed bone surfaces being rubbed together.
This is another common kind of arthritis which is actually a systemic disease. Meaning, rheumatoid is an autoimmune disease that occurs throughout the body, affecting many healthy body tissues including the cartilage tissue. Therefore, the disease, apart from causing painful joints, shows other symptoms as well such as fatigue, loss of appetite, etc.
Besides affecting the synovium of the joints, in rheumatoid arthritis, the anti-bodies produced due to immune malfunction also act against the tissues of the lungs and the heart. Rheumatoid nodules may also appear on the skin of the affected one.
Joints that are involved include those of the hands, wrists, elbows, ankles, toes and knees. If not treated early, may lead to joint deformity to a great extent.
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Gout is another painful condition of the joints. It usually involves the joint of the big toe. Rising levels of uric acid in the body can cause uric acid crystals to accumulate around the joint. This causes inflammation in that area, making the joint painful and hot.
High levels of uric acid in the body can be a result of either its excessive production or reduced excretion. Old age is a risk factor in the case of gouty arthritis. Also, men are more likely to be affected. Other risk factors include diabetes, overweight, too much alcohol consumption and chronic kidney problems.
Inflammation of a joint due to bacterial or fungal causes stands another one amongst the long list of the kinds of arthritis. Bacteria can travel through blood stream, reach a particular joint and ignite inflammation there. The bacteria may also enter the joint during surgery or due to injury.
The most common acute septic arthritis causing bacteria are of the staphylococcus and streptococcus species. However, the less common and chronic septic arthritis causing bacteria include Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans.
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
This kind of arthritis, as the name indicates, occurs at a very young age, that is, in children under the age of 16. Some common symptoms such as fatigue, poor appetite, limping and flu-like symptoms may indicate this arthritis in a child. It is also a kind of auto immune disease which can last from months to years, and even can persist for lifetime. Some complications of the disease include inflammation of the eyes (uveitis) and affected jaws and teeth.
Psoriatic arthritis is a chronic condition that results in the inflammation of the skin and the joints. It is characterized by red, raised patches on the skin which is a result of inflammation.
Source : http://www.orthopaedics.com.sg/conditions/joint-arthritis/psoriatic-arthritis
Scaly patches can also develop on the skin. The disease can occur in childhood as well but it usually occurs in ages between 30 and 50. Joints that are affected in psoriatic arthritis include those of the elbow and knees. Skin inflammation and joint inflammation in this disease often appear separately.